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Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)

Short (Certificate) Courses for Pilots-in-Service

Min. Academic & Professional Level

Intermediate & PPL,CPL, ATPL Holders & Flight Instructors

Course Designed for:

PPL,CPL, ATPL Holders, Airlines & GA Pilot-in-Service, Flight Instructors of Flying Clubs & Flight Simulators

Short Course Modules:

Contents:

Module 1: Introduction to Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)

Sub-topic 1: Understanding PBN and Its Significance

Sub-topic 2: Historical Development of PBN

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Framework for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Benefits and Challenges of PBN Implementation

Module 2: PBN Navigation Specifications

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Concepts

Sub-topic 2: PBN Equipment and Avionics

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Procedure Design Criteria

Sub-topic 4: Accuracy, Integrity, and Continuity (AIC) Parameters

Module 3: Types of PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Departure Procedures (DPs)

Sub-topic 2: RNAV and RNP Arrival Procedures (STARs)

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Approach Procedures

Sub-topic 4: PBN En-Route Procedures

Module 4: PBN Implementation and Certification

Sub-topic 1: Aircraft Certification for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Navigation Database Management

Sub-topic 3: Training and Proficiency for Flight Crew

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Management and PBN Integration

Module 5: PBN Equipment and Avionics

Sub-topic 1: Required Avionics for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Multimode Receivers and Flight Management Systems (FMS)

Sub-topic 3: GPS and GNSS for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Monitoring and Alerting Systems

Module 6: RNP and RNAV Procedures in PBN

Sub-topic 1: RNP and RNAV Specifications and Performance Levels

Sub-topic 2: Criteria for Designing RNP and RNAV Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Advanced RNP (A-RNP) Concepts

Sub-topic 4: Operational Approvals for RNP and RNAV

Module 7: PBN Charting and Database Management

Sub-topic 1: PBN Procedure Chart Types

Sub-topic 2: Charting for PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Navigation Database Updates and Management

Sub-topic 4: Human Factors in Charting and Database Design

Module 8: PBN Operations and Flight Planning

Sub-topic 1: Flight Planning Using PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 2: Optimizing Routes and Fuel Efficiency

Sub-topic 3: PBN in Oceanic and Remote Operations

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Control Expectations and Communications

Module 9: PBN Safety and Risk Management

Sub-topic 1: Safety Culture in PBN Implementation

Sub-topic 2: Risk Assessment and Mitigation in PBN Operations

Sub-topic 3: Human Factors and PBN Decision-Making

Sub-topic 4: Safety Promotion and Reporting

Module 10: Future Trends and Innovations in PBN

Sub-topic 1: Advances in PBN Technology

Sub-topic 2: Multi-constellation and Multi-frequency GNSS

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Changes and Evolving Standards

Sub-topic 4: Research and Development in PBN Systems

An Overview:

Definition: Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) is an approach to aircraft navigation that focuses on achieving specific performance requirements rather than relying solely on traditional ground-based navigation aids. PBN allows for more precise and efficient navigation, leading to improved airspace capacity, reduced flight times, and enhanced safety. It encompasses various navigation concepts, including area navigation (RNAV) and required navigation performance (RNP).

Here’s an overview of Performance-Based Navigation, including guidelines, equipment requirements, procedures, compliance, standards, assessments, training, and other essentials:

Guidelines:

  • PBN is guided by standards set by international aviation organizations like the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and regional authorities like the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA).

Equipment Requirements:

  • Aircraft must be equipped with navigation systems that meet the required performance standards, enabling accurate and precise navigation.

Types of Equipment:

  • Aircraft must have onboard systems like Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Inertial Navigation Systems (INS), and advanced avionics to support PBN.
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), 


  • Required Navigation Performance (RNP), 


  • Area Navigation (RNAV).





  1. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS):

Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is a satellite-based navigation system that provides accurate position, velocity, and timing information to users around the world. The most well-known GNSS system is the Global Positioning System (GPS), developed and operated by the United States. Other systems include Russia’s GLONASS, Europe’s Galileo, and China’s BeiDou.

Components:

Satellites: GNSS systems consist of a constellation of satellites orbiting Earth. These satellites broadcast signals that receivers on the ground use to determine their position.

Ground Control Stations: Control stations monitor and manage the satellite constellation, ensuring accurate signals and system integrity.

User Receivers: GPS receivers or GNSS receivers are used by aircraft, ships, vehicles, and individuals to receive satellite signals and calculate their precise position.

Working Procedures:

Satellite Signal Reception: GNSS receivers pick up signals from multiple satellites in the constellation.

Trilateration: By comparing the time it takes for signals to reach the receiver from different satellites, the receiver calculates its distance from each satellite.

Position Calculation: Using distance measurements from multiple satellites, the receiver uses trilateration or multilateration techniques to calculate its precise three-dimensional position.

Navigation Solution: With information from at least four satellites, the receiver determines its latitude, longitude, altitude, and speed. This information is displayed on the receiver’s screen or used for navigation purposes.

  1. Required Navigation Performance (RNP):

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is a concept that defines the minimum level of navigational accuracy a specific aircraft or operation must achieve. It ensures that aircraft can navigate within a specified containment area to maintain separation from obstacles and other traffic.

Components:

Navigation Specification: RNP specifies the required navigational accuracy, containment areas, and performance criteria for different phases of flight.

Working Procedures:

Navigation Performance Requirement: Based on aircraft capabilities and operational needs, an RNP value is assigned, indicating the required navigational accuracy.

Route Planning: Air traffic controllers and flight crews plan routes that adhere to the specified RNP containment areas, ensuring that the aircraft remains within the required navigation performance.

Monitoring and Reporting: Aircraft must continuously monitor their position using onboard navigation systems. Deviations from the specified RNP containment areas are reported to air traffic control.

  1. Area Navigation (RNAV):

Area Navigation (RNAV) is a navigation method that allows aircraft to follow a predetermined route or path within a defined airspace area without relying on ground-based navigation aids.

Components:

Navigation Systems: Aircraft equipped with RNAV capabilities use onboard navigation systems like GPS, inertial navigation systems (INS), or a combination of sensors.

Working Procedures:

Route Definition: Flight crews program the RNAV system with a specific route or waypoints that define the desired path of the aircraft.

Path Following: The RNAV system guides the aircraft along the programmed route, taking into account waypoints, altitude changes, and other factors.

Flexibility: RNAV allows for flexible routing, enabling aircraft to navigate direct paths between waypoints rather than adhering to fixed airways.

In summary, GNSS provides accurate position data to navigation systems, RNP ensures aircraft navigation within defined accuracy levels, and RNAV allows flexible routing using onboard navigation systems. These concepts collectively contribute to more efficient and precise aircraft navigation, improving safety and flight efficiency.

Procedure:

  • PBN procedures use RNAV and RNP concepts to define specific navigation routes and approaches.
  • RNAV procedures allow aircraft to follow defined paths without being constrained to ground-based navigation aids.
  • RNP procedures require aircraft to maintain a certain level of navigational accuracy throughout the flight.

Compliance:

  • Aircraft operators and flight crews must adhere to the specified PBN procedures and requirements defined by aviation authorities.

 

Restrictions:

  • PBN procedures must be followed according to the prescribed lateral and vertical containment areas to ensure safety.

Standards of Navigation:

  • PBN standards specify the required navigational accuracy, containment areas, and performance criteria for different phases of flight.

Checklist:

  • Flight crews use checklists to ensure that the aircraft is properly configured and equipped for PBN procedures before departure.

Performance Assessment Criteria:

  • PBN procedures have specific performance criteria, including accuracy and containment requirements that aircraft must meet during flight.

Periodical Training:

  • Flight crews receive training on PBN procedures, equipment usage, and navigation techniques to ensure proper implementation.

Essentials:

  • PBN enhances airspace capacity, reduces fuel consumption, and improves flight efficiency.
  • It requires collaboration between aviation authorities, aircraft operators, and air traffic control.
  • Accurate navigation data, updated navigation databases, and proper equipment maintenance are essential for successful PBN implementation.

PBN represents a significant advancement in aviation navigation, offering more flexibility, accuracy, and efficiency compared to traditional navigation methods. It requires a comprehensive understanding of equipment, procedures, and compliance to ensure safe and successful implementation. As with any aviation concept, staying current with the latest guidelines and regulations is crucial for aviation professionals

Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Training Video:

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIcvWUuoahs&ab_channel=LondonStanstedAirport

Course Modules:

10 modules for a short course on “Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)” in aircraft flight in aviation, each with at least four relevant sub-topics:

Module 1: Introduction to Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)

Sub-topic 1: Understanding PBN and Its Significance

Sub-topic 2: Historical Development of PBN

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Framework for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Benefits and Challenges of PBN Implementation

Sub-topic 1: Understanding PBN and Its Significance

Sub-topic 2: Historical Development of PBN

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Framework for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Benefits and Challenges of PBN Implementation

Module 2: PBN Navigation Specifications

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Concepts

Sub-topic 2: PBN Equipment and Avionics

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Procedure Design Criteria

Sub-topic 4: Accuracy, Integrity, and Continuity (AIC) Parameters

 

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Concepts

Sub-topic 2: PBN Equipment and Avionics

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Procedure Design Criteria

Sub-topic 4: Accuracy, Integrity, and Continuity (AIC) Parameters

Module 3: Types of PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Departure Procedures (DPs)

Sub-topic 2: RNAV and RNP Arrival Procedures (STARs)

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Approach Procedures

Sub-topic 4: PBN En-Route Procedures

 

Sub-topic 1: RNAV and RNP Departure Procedures (DPs)

Sub-topic 2: RNAV and RNP Arrival Procedures (STARs)

Sub-topic 3: RNAV and RNP Approach Procedures

Sub-topic 4: PBN En-Route Procedures

Module 4: PBN Implementation and Certification

Sub-topic 1: Aircraft Certification for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Navigation Database Management

Sub-topic 3: Training and Proficiency for Flight Crew

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Management and PBN Integration

 

Sub-topic 1: Aircraft Certification for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Navigation Database Management

Sub-topic 3: Training and Proficiency for Flight Crew

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Management and PBN Integration

 

Module 5: PBN Equipment and Avionics

Sub-topic 1: Required Avionics for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Multimode Receivers and Flight Management Systems (FMS)

Sub-topic 3: GPS and GNSS for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Monitoring and Alerting Systems

 

Sub-topic 1: Required Avionics for PBN

Sub-topic 2: Multimode Receivers and Flight Management Systems (FMS)

Sub-topic 3: GPS and GNSS for PBN

Sub-topic 4: Monitoring and Alerting Systems

Module 6: RNP and RNAV Procedures in PBN

Sub-topic 1: RNP and RNAV Specifications and Performance Levels

Sub-topic 2: Criteria for Designing RNP and RNAV Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Advanced RNP (A-RNP) Concepts

Sub-topic 4: Operational Approvals for RNP and RNAV

 

Sub-topic 1: RNP and RNAV Specifications and Performance Levels

Sub-topic 2: Criteria for Designing RNP and RNAV Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Advanced RNP (A-RNP) Concepts

Sub-topic 4: Operational Approvals for RNP and RNAV

Module 7: PBN Charting and Database Management

Sub-topic 1: PBN Procedure Chart Types

Sub-topic 2: Charting for PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Navigation Database Updates and Management

Sub-topic 4: Human Factors in Charting and Database Design

 

Sub-topic 1: PBN Procedure Chart Types

Sub-topic 2: Charting for PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 3: Navigation Database Updates and Management

Sub-topic 4: Human Factors in Charting and Database Design

Module 8: PBN Operations and Flight Planning

Sub-topic 1: Flight Planning Using PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 2: Optimizing Routes and Fuel Efficiency

Sub-topic 3: PBN in Oceanic and Remote Operations

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Control Expectations and Communications




Sub-topic 1: Flight Planning Using PBN Procedures

Sub-topic 2: Optimizing Routes and Fuel Efficiency

Sub-topic 3: PBN in Oceanic and Remote Operations

Sub-topic 4: Air Traffic Control Expectations and Communications

Module 9: PBN Safety and Risk Management

Sub-topic 1: Safety Culture in PBN Implementation

Sub-topic 2: Risk Assessment and Mitigation in PBN Operations

Sub-topic 3: Human Factors and PBN Decision-Making

Sub-topic 4: Safety Promotion and Reporting

 

Sub-topic 1: Safety Culture in PBN Implementation

Sub-topic 2: Risk Assessment and Mitigation in PBN Operations

Sub-topic 3: Human Factors and PBN Decision-Making

Sub-topic 4: Safety Promotion and Reporting

Module 10: Future Trends and Innovations in PBN

Sub-topic 1: Advances in PBN Technology

Sub-topic 2: Multi-constellation and Multi-frequency GNSS

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Changes and Evolving Standards

Sub-topic 4: Research and Development in PBN Systems

 

Sub-topic 1: Advances in PBN Technology

Sub-topic 2: Multi-constellation and Multi-frequency GNSS

Sub-topic 3: Regulatory Changes and Evolving Standards

Sub-topic 4: Research and Development in PBN Systems

These modules provide a comprehensive overview of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) in aircraft flight in aviation, covering navigation specifications, procedures, equipment, certification, safety considerations, and the latest trends in PBN technology and implementation.